Adolescent Pregnancy: Policy and Prevention Services Essay

Teenage pregnancy has become a national problem in the society and various measures are being proposed on countering it. Therefore, this paper is going to conduct a literature review of numerous books that cover this explosive subject from its causes to preventions and repercussions. It also observes the differences of traditions, cultures and income values as expressed in countries around the world and their link with teenage pregnancy (Piehl 2009 p. 123).

Methods used

I have chosen this topic to shed light on the various repercussions that afflict girls impregnated in their teenage years. It will also cover the factors that cause and how it can be prevented.

Cherry, A et al, (2001), Teenage Pregnancy: A Global View, Greenwood Publishing Group, New York.

According to Cherry and others, teenage pregnancy is the pregnancy that afflicts persons under 20 years especially when the pregnancy terminates. This predicament is always brought by various individual and societal factors that is always manifested in most communities. For example, poverty, parental neglect, lack of education and unemployment have been cited as most reasons why teenagers fall pregnant early (Cherry et al, 2001, p.120). In addition, the authors explain that the pregnancy can occur at various periods in the life stage of the girl child.

This is either before or after puberty. On that note, it also happens with menarche, which is the first menstrual period that happens between the ages of 12 and 13. According to the writers, this is the stage of fertility among females and they are prone to getting pregnant. However, these authors concur that teenage pregnancies differ from nation to nation depending on the economic prospects, development and cultural factors among others (Cherry et al, 2001, p.126). Similarly, there is the use of condoms and contraceptives that are varying from country to country. While other nations allow the use of contraceptives to prevent unwanted pregnancy among teenagers, other countries bar them the grounds of religion and culture.

Aria, L, (2009), Teenage Pregnancy: The Making and Unmaking of a Problem, The Policy Press, New Jersey.

According to Aria in her book, there are different signs and symptoms of noting when a teenager is pregnant. However, before she tackles that, she narrates the risk factors that teenagers/adolescents have to contend with in the community. For example, economic disadvantage especially in developing nations that survive on less than a dollar a day and older male partner. Additionally, poor school performance, young age and single or teen parenthood are other serious factors predisposing teenagers to early pregnancy (Aria 2009, p.89). Therefore, the symptoms of pregnancy among teenagers include abdominal distention, fatigue, missed period and breast enlargement or breast tenderness. Others include nausea/vomiting, frequent urination and light-headedness or actual fainting.

On that note, Aria suggests various signs and tests that are fundamental to identify early to help a pregnant teenager. For example, she observes issues such as gaining of weight and medical examination may indicate increased abdominal girth. Alternatively, healthcare provider may also examine the top of the enlarged uterus called the fundus to establish a better way to help the teenager. These examinations may entail that involving the pelvic to show purple or bluish coloration of the vaginal walls (Aria 2009, p.142). Furthermore, urine and/or serum when passed through a pregnancy test usually turn out as positive. Another key test involves the dates of the pregnancy that confirmed or checked using a pregnancy ultrasound.

Farber, N, (2009), Adolescent Pregnancy: Policy and Prevention Services, John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Farber her in book explains the practical policies that if implemented have a chance of reducing teenage pregnancy. Similarly, she has tested treatments that pregnant teenagers should undergo in order to safeguard the welfare of the unborn baby. However, the author cautions against the options available of helping a pregnant such as abortion, adoption and family support among others. In other words, prior discussions should be made to strike an agreement while involving all the parties (Farber 2009, p.156). These include the father of the baby, healthcare providers and the mother and other concerned person. On the same scope, prenatal care should be conducted early through a program that deals with teenage pregnancies to ensure the delivery of a healthy baby. Additionally assessment for smoking, drug use and alcohol use should be conducted on pregnant teens to enable them quit.

Furthermore, proper and adequate nutrition should be advised through community resources and education. These should also entail appropriate sleep and enough exercise to ensure the proper growth of the unborn baby. In the same length, information about contraceptive should be imparted to the teenage after deliver to prevent another pregnancy. The author also raises a fundamental awareness of encouraging teenagers who have given birth to return to school and continue with their schooling (Farber 2009, p.159). Alternatively, they can be admitted in other educational programs to sharpen their skills and realize their talents. These are only possible if the child is supported both emotionally and financially. Another pressing issue involves provision of affordable childcare for teen mothers who are in school or employed.

Chambers, S. & Wakley, G, (2001), Tackling Teenage Pregnancy: Sex, Culture and Needs, Radcliffe Publishing, New York.

However, according to Chambers and Wakley, there are various expectations (prognosis) of teenagers who have given birth once. They argue that these teenagers have a likelihood of having more children. Similarly, unlike their age group who do not fall pregnant, those are unfortunate complete school 2 years behind. Another grim factor is the affliction of poverty on teens that have given birth at least once (Chambers & Wakley 2001, p.119). The authors also warn that teen mothers who have been using drugs for some time are likely to relapse to the behavior about 5-6 months after delivery. In addition, as compared to older mothers, teen mothers have a likelihood of having a second child in duration of 2 years. There are also increased risk especially development problems to infants born to teenage mothers as compared to older ones. Another disturbing assumption by these writers is that boys born of teen mothers have a likelihood of being arrested or serving a jail term. This is also manifested in girls born of teen parent who are predisposed to becoming teen mothers too.

In summary, it is paramount to effectively address the matters raised above that cause teenage to save a generation that is going to waste. It is also important for the government and other interested stakeholders to assist in protecting the girl child in attaining her goals instead of getting pregnant (Baker 2007, p.145).

Bibliography

Aria, L, (2009), Teenage Pregnancy: The Making and Unmaking of a Problem, The Policy Press, New Jersey.

Baker, P, (2007), Teenage Pregnancy and Reproductive Health, RCOG, Mason.

Chambers, S. & Wakley, G, (2001), Tackling Teenage Pregnancy: Sex, Culture and Needs, Radcliffe Publishing, New York.

Cherry, A et al, (2001), Teenage Pregnancy: A Global View, Greenwood Publishing Group, New York.

Farber, N, (2009), Adolescent Pregnancy: Policy and Prevention Services, John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Piehl, N, (2009), Teenage Pregnancy, Greenhaven Press, New Jersey.

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